Office of Environmental Health & Safety

Chemical/Biological Safety Section

Carcinogen Safety


GUIDELINES FOR HANDLING CARCINOGENS

INTRODUCTION

The primary purpose of this document is to establish procedures which help avoid chemical carcinogen exposures to laboratory workers, and to prevent contamination of the laboratory, equipment and the environment.

Unlike industrial processes or repetitive assembly line type operations, a research laboratory is constantly changing the types of materials used and the methods for handling them. Researchers dedicated to the same overall objectives may have significantly different potentials for exposure when using the same materials. Ensuring safety while working with extremely hazardous materials such as carcinogens requires that the investigator or lab manager identify all points of hazard and prevent exposure by instituting specific work practices, administrative controls (i.e., minimizing the amount of time an individual is allowed to work with a material) or engineering controls (i.e., the use of exhaust ventilation) as appropriate. Prior to working with a carcinogenic material, determine if a less toxic material may be substituted, and if not, purchase and utilize the smallest amount of the material possible. The last line of protection against exposures to a carcinogen (and the least desirable) is the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Gloves, gowns, lab coats, goggles, safety glasses, etc. can all fail to protect at times. The investigator or lab manager should contact OEHS (828-1392) if an assessment of exposure risk is needed. In some instances, air monitoring may be necessary, and often required by OSHA, to establish potential human exposure.

A wide variety of chemical compounds have been found to be carcinogenic to humans and/or animals. All compounds that cause cancer in any species should be regarded as potentially hazardous to humans working directly with the material, as in a laboratory setting. The tables at the end of this document list all currently identified carcinogens. If you are concerned about a substance which does not appear in the tables, contact OEHS for further assistance. The current American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) categories for carcinogens are listed as follows:

A1 - Confirmed Human Carcinogen: The agent is carcinogenic to humans based on the weight of evidence from epidemiological studies of, or convincing clinical evidence in, exposed humans.

A2 - Suspected Human Carcinogen: The agent is carcinogenic in experimental animals at dose levels, by route(s) of administration, at site(s), of histologic type(s), or by mechanism(s) that are considered relevant to worker exposure. Available epidemiological studies are conflicting or insufficient to confirm an increased risk of cancer in exposed humans.

A3 - Animal Carcinogen: The agent is carcinogenic in experimental animals at a relatively high dose, by route(s) of administration, at site(s) of histologic type(s), or by mechanism(s) that are not considered relevant to worker exposure. Available epidemiological studies do not confirm an increased risk of cancer in exposed humans. Available evidence suggests that the agent is not likely to cause cancer in humans except under uncommon or unlikely routes or levels of exposure.

A4 - Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen: There is inadequate data on which to classify the agent in terms of its carcinogenicity in humans and/or animals.

A5 - Not Suspected as a Human Carcinogen: The agent is not suspected to be a human carcinogen on the basis of properly conducted epidemiological studies in humans.
 
RISK ASSESSMENT

Carcinogenic activity of a particular chemical is only one of the factors that determine the level of safety measures to be implemented for each particular laboratory operation. The others include: the physical state of the compound or preparation; the volatility of the compound; the concentration and amount handled; the persistence of the compound; and, the type of experiment. The risk involved when working with carcinogens is related to both the quantity and the physical properties of the material being handled and the complexity of the experimental procedure. The risk is greatest when working with highly potent carcinogens, carcinogens which are also highly toxic, large quantities, or when performing complex manipulations. According to the degree of risk inherent in each particular laboratory and laboratory operation, the investigator has the responsibility for deciding the proper safety measures.

In order to assess risk of exposure to a hazardous material, the means by which the body comes in contact with the material must be known. There are essentially 3 ways in which a substance can enter the body:

Inhalation - The most common way that a substance can enter the body is by breathing the substance when it is mixed in the surrounding air.

Ingestion - A substance may be directly or indirectly taken into the mouth. Ingestion of a carcinogen is usually done unknowingly and unintentionally through contaminated food or drink.

Absorption - The third way that a carcinogen enters the body is through the skin. Many substances readily penetrate the skin or damage the skin barrier.

It is beneficial to be aware of the various routes of entry because the knowledge of how one might become exposed allows one to utilize the appropriate preventive measures. Various personal and operational procedures must be practiced in laboratories where chemical carcinogens are handled.
 
PREVENTING EXPOSURE

Preventive measures include engineering and work practice controls and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Engineering and work practice controls are the primary methods used to control exposures. Engineering controls isolate or remove the hazard from employees and are used in conjunction with work practices. Work practice controls reduce the likelihood of exposure by altering the manner in which the task is performed. Personal protective equipment is specialized clothing or equipment used by employees to protect against direct exposure to carcinogenic materials. Such equipment includes: gloves, gowns, laboratory coats, aprons, face shields, safety glasses or goggles and in some situations, respirators. Under normal working conditions, protective clothing should be the last line of defense in order to realistically achieve zero carcinogen exposure level.

If possible, non-carcinogenic substances should be substituted for chemical carcinogens. If this is not possible, all chemical carcinogens must be treated as extremely hazardous materials. In almost every instance, carcinogens should be handled in containment cabinets (glove box/hood) and, therefore, protective equipment or clothing becomes the secondary barrier between the chemical and the handler.

There is an enormous amount of controversy over what is and is not a carcinogen. Among the group of substances known as "suspect carcinogens," there is a wide variation in potency. All suspect carcinogens should be handled carefully; however, the more potent carcinogens (particularly those in class A1 and A2) should be handled with extreme care. The following operating procedures apply to potent carcinogens. The investigator must make some judgment about the level of risk to lab workers and the VCU community and incoporate these procedures as necessary.
 
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR HANDLING CARCINOGENS

1. WORK AREA LABELING

Doors leading into areas where potent carcinogens are used regularly should be marked distinctively with warning labels. A sign stating one of the following should be highly visible at all entrance and exit areas: "Caution - Cancer - Suspect Agent - Authorized Personnel Only" or "Danger - Chemical Carcinogens - Authorized Personnel Only." Access should be limited to persons involved in the experiment. Some carcinogens, specifically regulated by OSHA, may have additional requirements for the use of regulated areas. When regulated areas are required by OSHA, OEHS will assist each department on a case by case basis in establishing the areas. Doors to the laboratory should be closed while work with carcinogens is being conducted. Doors must be locked when the laboratory is unattended.

2. ENGINEERING AND WORK PRACTICE CONTROLS

Hoods, glove boxes, or isolation cabinets are required protection for working with potent carcinogens, especially when dusts or volatile liquids are being used. Hoods to be used for work with carcinogens must be tested, before work is begun. Hoods should be re-tested periodically, usually once a year or after any structural changes. Contact OEHS to have fume hoods tested. Consideration must be given to where hoods are to be exhausted. In some cases, exhausted air must be treated prior to release. All manipulations involving chemical carcinogens should be performed in such a way that the generation of dusts and aerosols is kept to a minimum.

Avoid contamination of equipment. Contaminated equipment and areas must be cleaned thoroughly, effectively and immediately by laboratory staff. Prior to maintenance workers conducting work on laboratory equipment, all work with carcinogens should cease and the area and equipment must be thoroughly decontaminated.

All work surfaces which could be potentially exposed to chemical carcinogens should be easily cleanable and/or covered with shatterproof glass plates, stainless steel or plastic trays, dry absorbent plastic-backed paper, foil, or other impervious and/or disposable material. This allows for containment of spills and easy clean-up. It is very important to keep working quantities to a minimum. The quantities present in a work area should not exceed the amounts required for one week. Any excess should be stored in an appropriate area. Vessels which contain carcinogens should be properly labeled. Storage cabinets and/or refrigerators should bear the appropriate warning about the potential cancer hazard.

3. DISPOSAL AND SPILL RESPONSE

Carcinogens must not be disposed of down the drain or through the exhaust system. Waste carcinogens must be brought to OEHS for disposal. A completed waste disposal form must accompany the material. The container containing the carcinogen must be properly labeled. Additional information concerning proper disposal procedures and the OEHS's Chemical Waste Disposal Program can be obtained by calling 828-4866.

Spills must be anticipated before they occur. A plan must be written and reviewed with appropriate personnel which covers all likely incidents. Personal protective clothing must be available and utilized for spills. For further assistance with preparing a spill response plan, contact OEHS.

4. PERSONAL PROTECTION EQUIPMENT (PPE)

Eye and face protection in the laboratory is of prime importance because of the possibility of a chemical splash or explosion that could cause permanent damage. Eye protection - safety glasses or goggles (as appropriate for the hazard) are required at all times in the laboratory work environment. Eye protection must be ANSI approved. Safety glasses are intended to prevent solid objects from entering the eyes. When there is a potential for a splash, mist or vapor eye injury, goggles and possibly a face shield must be worn.

In general, the laboratory worker should always be aware of possible points of contamination. Hands should always be kept away from areas of the face, especially the mouth, nose, and eyes. Care must also be taken not to touch other items such as door knobs, telephones, or elevator buttons with gloves worn while handling carcinogens. After completion of a particular experiment, or upon suspected contamination, all laboratory protective clothing should be removed and the hands, forearms, face, and neck should be washed with soap and water. After a possible contamination, the laboratory worker should also shower and dispose of any contaminated personal or protective clothing.

When working with carcinogens, it is extremely important to avoid all skin contact. A fully fastened laboratory coat or disposable coveralls should be worn over street clothing. Clothing must be examined daily for possible contamination and areas of wear and tear. Contaminated laboratory clothing must be either disposed of or decontaminated and laundered. Clothing containing holes or tears should be disposed of appropriately. Gloves must be worn at all times when handling carcinogens or contaminated equipment. The type of glove required, depends on the type of carcinogen in use. Disposable gloves should be discarded after each use and immediately after contamination. Contact OEHS for assistance in glove selection.

5. INVENTORY AND MSDSs

An inventory of all carcinogens must be maintained along with a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each. MSDS should be reviewed by all individuals who work within the same laboratory, regardless of whether they are involved with hands on manipulation of the carcinogen.

6. TRANSPORTATION OF CARCINOGENS

Laboratory transfer of potent carcinogens must be conducted in a sealed unbreakable outer container. The primary container should be suitably sealed and the secondary container should contain enough absorbent material, such as vermiculite, to cushion the primary container. The packaging should be able to absorb the contents of the primary container if a liquid spill should occur. The secondary or transfer container should also be suitably labeled. Freight elevators should be utilized to transport carcinogens (or other hazardous substances) within the building.

7. EMPLOYEE TRAINING

Laboratory employees must be specifically trained on the potential hazards of carcinogens. Training must include: a) a description of the carcinogenic hazards - local and systemic toxicity; b) description of operations in which an exposure could occur; c) information on emergency response actions of the laboratory; d) specific information to aid the employee in recognizing and evaluating situations that may result in an exposure; and, e) information concerning proper decontamination procedures. All employee training must be fully documented and kept on file in the laboratory's chemical hygiene plan.

8. MONITORING

In areas where acrylonitrile, arsenic, asbestos, benzene, ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, lead and vinyl chloride are used, OEHS must be notified for a preview of operations and initial monitoring of airborne concentrations. If concentrations are below prescribed levels, additional monitoring may not be necessary. If levels exceed standards, a compliance monitoring program is necessary with a designated amount and frequency of sampling specified along with necessary corrective actions to reduce exposures.

Depending upon the nature of the carcinogen, a medical monitoring program may need to be established prior to the initiation of a research study. The principle investigator, in consultation with the Institutional Biosafety Committee, will designate those employees whose activities place them at sufficient risk to require inclusion in a medical monitoring program. The purposes of the medical monitoring program are: a) to provide a mechanism by which job related illnesses can be detected; b) to determine the level of risk for employees working in specific areas with specific chemicals as compared with other employees; c) to determine the adequacy of protective equipment and procedures; and, d) to verify that hazardous agents/materials are not being introduced by the University into the general population. Each employee participating in the medical monitoring program shall report all significant illnesses to Employee Health Services as soon as symptoms and/or an exposure are experienced.

9. EXPOSURES

Employees potentially exposed to a carcinogen must immediately report the incident to their supervisor (and subsequently to the principle investigator), and seek medical attention through the ER or Employee Health (whichever is appropriate).
 
 
CHEMICAL AND PROCESSES CLASSIFIED AS CARCINOGENS
CHEMICAL NAME/PROCESS CAS NO IARC1 NTP2 NIOSH3 OSHA4 ACGIH5
A-alpha-C(2-Amino-9H- 2B 

pyrideo[2,3-b]indole) 

. 2B . . . .
Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 2B A P . A3
Acetamide .. 2B . . . .
2-Acetylaminofluorene 53-96-3 . A P X .
Acrylamide 79-06-1 2B A P . A2
Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 2A A X X A2
Actinomycin D 50-76-0  . . . . .
Adriamycin 23214-92-8 2A A . . .
AF-2[2-(2-Furyl)-3- 

(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide] 

. 2B . . . .
Alfatoxins . 1 K . . .
Aldrin 309-00-2 . . P . .
Aluminum Production 7429-90-5 1 . . . .
2-Aminoanthraquinone 117-79-3 . A . . .
4-Aminodiphenyl 92-67-1 1 K P X A1
0-Aminoazotoluene . . A . . .
1-Amino-2-methylanthraquinone 82-28-0 . A . . .
Amitrole 61-82-5 . A P . .
para-Aminoazobenzene . 2B  . . . .
orsho-Anisidine . 2B . . . .
Analgesic mixtures containing 

Phenacetin

. 1 K . . .
Androgenic (anabolic) steroids . 2A . . . .
Aniline 62-53-3 . . P . .
0-Anisidine 90-04-0 . . P . .
0-Anisidine Hydrochloride 134-29-2 . . . .
Antimony Trioxide Production . . . . . A2 
Aramite 140-57-8 2B . . . .
Arsenic and Arsenic Compounds, Inorganic 7440-38-2 . K X X A1
Arsenic Trioxide Production . . . . . .
Asbestos 1332-21-4 1 K X X .
Actinolite . . . . X .
Amosite 12172-73-5 . . . . A1
Anthophyllite . . . . . .
Chrysolite 12001-29-5 . . . . A1 
Crocidolite 12001-28-4 . . . . A1 
Tremolite . . . . X .
Other Forms . . . . . A1 
Asphalt fumes 8052-42-4 . . X . .
Auramine (Technical Grade) 2465-27-2 . . . . .
Auramine,manufacture . 1 . . . .
Auramine,technical-grade . 2B . . . .
Azaserine . 2B . . . .
Azathioprine 446-86-6 1 K . . .
Benz[a]anthracene 56-55-3 2A A . . A2
Benzene 71-43-2 1 K X X A2
Benzidine 92-87-5 1 K X . A1
Benzidine-based Dyes . 2A . X . .
Benzo[b]fluoranthene 205-99-2 2B A . . A2
Benzo[j]fluoranthene 205-82-3 2B A . . .
Benzo[k]fluoranthene 207-08-9 2A A . . .
Benzo[a]pyrene 50-32-8 2A A . . A2
Benzotrichloride 98-07-7 . A . . .
Benzylviolet 4B . 2B . . . .
Beryllium and Certain 

Beryllium Compounds

7440-41-7 A X . . A2
Bete liquid with tobacco . 1 . . . .
N,N-Bis(2-chloroethyl)- 

2-naphthylamine(Chlornaphazine)

494-03-1 1 . . . .
Bitumens, extracts of stem- 

refined and air-refined 

. 2B . . . .
Bischloroethyl Nitrosourea(BCNU) 154-93-8 2A . . .
Bis-chloromethyle Ether (BCME) 542-88-1 1 . . . .
Bleomycins . 2B . . . .
Boot and Shoe Manufacture . 1 . . . .
Bracken fern . 2B . . . .
Bromodichloromethane . . A . . .
1,3-Butadiene  106-99-0  2B A X . A2
1,4-Butanediol Dimethane- 

Sulphonate (Myleran) 

55-98-1 1 K . . .
Butylated hydroxyanisole(BHA) . 2B . . .
Beta-Butyrolactone . 2B . . . .
tert-Butyl chromate 1189-85-1 . . X . .
Cadmium and Cadmium Compounds  7440-43-9 2A A X . A2 
Calcium Chromate 13765-19-0 . . . . A2 
Carbon-Black Extracts 1333-86-4 2B . X . .
Carbon Tetrachloride 56-23-5 2B A X . A3 
Captafol(Difolatan) 2425-06-1 . . P . .
Captan 133-06-2 . . P . .
Carpentry and Joinery . 2B . . . .
Carrageenan (Degraded) 56-23-5 2B . . . .
Certain Combined Chemotherapy for Lymphomas . 1 . . . .
Chlorambucil 305-03-3 1 K . . .
Chloramphenicol 56-75-7 2B . . . .
Chlordane 57-74-9 . . P . .
Chlordecone (Kepone) . 2B . . . .
Chlorendic Acide . . A . . .
Chlorinated camphene 8001-35-2 . . P . .
Chlorinated Paraffins (C12, 60% chlorine) . . A . . .
Chlorodiphenyl 53469-21-9 . . . .
Chlorodiphenyl 11097-69-1 . . P . .
1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl- 

1-nitrosourea (CCNU) 

13010-47-4 2A A . . .
Alpha-Chlorinated toluenes . 2B . . . .
Chloroform 67-66-3 2B A P . A2
bis(Chloromethyl) ether 542-88-1 . K X X A1
Chloromethyl Methyl Ether (Technical Grade)  107-30-2 . K P X A2
Chlorophenols (Occupational Exposure to)  . 2B  . . . .
Chlorophenoxy herbicides . 2B  . . . .
3-Chloro-2-methylpropene . . A . . .
4-Chloro-ortho-phenylenediamine . 2B A . . .
Chloroprene 126-99-8 . . X . .
Para-Chloro-ortho-toluidine . 2B . . . .
Chromic acid 7738-94-5 . . X . .
Chromite Ore Processing (Chromate) . . . . . A1
Chromite Compounds, hexavalent  . 1 . . . .
CHEMICAL NAME/PROCESS CAS NO IARC1 NTP2 NIOSH3 OSHA4 ACGIH5
Chromium (VI), Compounds 18540-29-9 . K X . .
Water Soluble  . . . . . .
Water Insoluble . . . . . A1 
Chromyl chloride 14977-61-8 . . X . .
Chrysene 218-01-9 . . X . A2
C.I. Basic Red 9 Monohydrochloride . . A . . .
Cisplatin 15663-27-1 2A A . . .
Citrus Red No.2 . 2B  . . . .
Coal Gasification . 1 . . . .
Coal Liquifaction  . . . . . .
Coal-Tar Products . 1 . . . .
Coal-Tar Pitch Volatiles 65996-03-2 1 . X X A1
Coke Oven Emissions . 1 A X X .
Combined Oral Contraceptives 1 . . . . .
Conjugated Estrogens . . K . . .
Creosotes . 2A . . . .
para-Cresidine 120-71-8 2B A . . .
Cupferron 135-20-6 . A . . .
Cycasin 14901-08-7 2B . . . .
Cyclophosphamide 50-18-0 1 K . . .
Dacarbazine 4342-03-4 2B A . . .
Daunomycin . 2B . . . .
DDT 50-29-3 2B A P . .
N,N-Diacetylbenzidine . 2B . . . .
2,4-Diaminoanisole and its salts 615-05-4 2B . P . .
2,4-Diaminoanisole Sulfate 39156-41-7 . A . . .
2,4-Diaminotoluene 95-80-7 2B A . . .
4,4-Diaminodiphenyl ether . 2B . . . .
Dibenz[a,h]acridine 226-36-8 2B A . . .
Dibenz[a,j]acridine 224-42-0 2B A . . .
Dibenz[a,h]anthracene 53-70-3 2A A . . .
7H-Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole 194-59-2 2B A . . .
Dibenzo[a,e]pyrene 192-65-4 2B A . . .
Dibenzo[a,h]pyrene 189-64-0 2B A . . .
Dibenzo[a,i]pyrene 189-55-9  2B A . . .
Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene 191-30-0 2B A . . .
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)  96-12-8 2B A X X .
1,2-Dibromoethane(EDB) . . A . . .
Dichloroacetylene 7572-29-4 . . P . .
Para-Dichlorobenzene 106-46-7 2B . P . A3
1,4-Dichlorobenzene . . A . . .
3,3 - Dichlorobenzidine 91-94-1 2B A P . A2
3,3 - Dichlorobenzidine Dihydrochloride . . A . . .
3,3 - Dichlorobenzidine Salts . . . . X .
1,2-Dichloroethane . 2B A . . .
1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 764-41-0 . . . . A2 
Dichloromethane . 2B A . . .
1,3-Dichloropropene (technical-grade)  542-75-6 2B A P . .
Dieldrin 60-57-1 . . P . .
Dienestrol 84-17-3 . . . . .
Diepoxybutane 1464-53-1 2B A . . .
Diesel exhaust . . . P . .
Di(2,3-epoxypropyl) ether(DGE) 2238-07-5 . . . . .
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 117-81-7 2B A P . .
1,2-Diethylhydrazine . 2B . . . .
Diethylstillbestrol (DES) 56-53-1 1 K . . .
Diethyl Sulphate 64-67-5 . A . . .
Diglycidyl resorcinol ether 2238-07-5 2B A P . .
Dihydrosafrole . 2B . . . .
3,3 - Dimethoxybenzidine 119-90-4 2B A . . .
4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene 60-11-7 2B A P X .
trans-2-[(Dimethylamino)methylimino] 

-5-[2-(5-nitro-2-furyl)vinyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole 

. 2B . . . .
Dimethylcarbamoyl Chloride 79-44-7 2A A P . A2
3,3-Dimethylbenzidine . 2B A . . .
1,1-Dimethylhydrazine 57-14-7 2B A P . A2
1,2-Dimethylhydrazine . 2B . . . .
Dimethyl Sulfate 77-78-1 2A A P . A2
Dimethylvinyl Chloride . . A . . .
Dinitrotoluene 25321-14-6 . . P . A2
1,4-Dioxane 123-91-1 2B A P . .
Direct Black 38, Technical 1937-37-7 . A . . .
Direct Blue 6, Technical 2602-46-2 . A . . .
Direct Brown 95, Technical 16071-86-6  . . . . .
Epichlorohydrin 106-89-8 2A A X . .
Erionite . 1 K . . .
Estrogens (Not Conjugated): 

Estradiol - 17

. . A . . .
Estrone . . A . . .
Ethinylestradiol  . . A . . .
Mestranol . . A . . .
Ethylacrylate 140-88-5 2B A P . A2
Ethyl bromide 74-96-4 . . . . A2
Ethinylesttradiol 57-63-6 . . . . .
Ethylene Dibromide (EDB) 106-93-4 2A . P . A2
Ethylene Dichloride (EDC) 107-06-2 . . P . .
Ethyleneimine 151-56-4 . . P X .
Ethylene Oxide 75-21-8 2A A X X A2
N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea . 2A . . . .
Ethylene Thiourea 96-45-7 2B A P . .
Ethyl Methanesulphonate 62-50-0 2B A . . .
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 2A A X X A2
2-(2-Formythydrazino) 

-4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)thiazole

. 2B . . . .
CHEMICAL NAME/PROCESS CAS NO IARC1 NTP2 NIOSH3 OSHA4 ACGIH5
Furniture Manufacture . 1 . . . .
2-(2-Furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)- 

acrylamide 

3688-53-7 . . . . .
Gallium arsenide 1303-00-0 . . X . .
Gasoline 8006-61-9 . . X . .
Glu-P-1 (2-Amino-6 

methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3,2-d]imidazole) 

. 2B . . . .
Glu-P-2 (2- 

Aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3,2-d}imidazole) 

. 2B . . . .
Gyromitrine 16568-02-8  . . . . .
Glycidaldehyde . 2B . . . .
Griseofulvin . 2B . . . .
Hematite Underground Mining (with exposure to radon) . 1 . . . .
Heptachlor 76-44-8 . . P . .
Hexachlorobenzene 118-74-1 . A . . .
Hexachlorobutadiene 87-68-3 . . P . A2
Hexachloroethane 67-72-1 . . P . A2
Hexamethyl Phosphoramide 680-31-9 2B A . . A2
Hydrazine 302-01-2 2B A P . A2
Hydrazine Sulfate 10034-93-2 . A . . .
Hydrazobenzene 122-66-7 . A . . .
ICR 170 146-59-8  . . . . .
Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene 193-39-5 2B A . . .
Iron and Steel Founding . 1 . . . .
Iron Dextran Complex 88154-94-3 2B A . . .
IQ(2-Amino-3-methylimidazo 

[4,5-f]quinoline 

. 2B . . . .
Isopropyl Alcohol Manufacture 

(Strong Acid Process) 

67-63-0 1 . P . .
Kepone (Chlordecone)  143-50-0 . A . .
Lasiocarpine . 2B . . . .
Lead and lead 

compounds, inorganic

. 2B . . X .
Lead Chromate 7758-97-6 . . . . A2
Lead Acetate 301-04-2 . A . . .
Lead Phosphate 7446-27-7 . . . .
Lindan and Other Haxachloro- 

Cyclohexane Isomers 

58-89-9 . . . .
Malonaldehyde 542-78-9 . . P . .
Manufacture of Magenta . 1 . . . .
MeA-a-C(2-Amino-3-methyl- 

9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole) 

. 2B . . . .
Medroxyprogesterone acetate . 2B . . . .
Melphalan 148-82-3 1 K . . .
Merphalan . 2B . . . .
Mestranol 72-33-3 . . . . .
Methoxsalen with Ultra-Violet 

A Therapy (PUVA) 

298-81-7 1 K . . .
Methoxychlor 72-43-5 . . P . .
2-Methylaziridine . 2B . . .
Methylazoxymethanol and its acetate . 2B . . . .
5-Methoxypsoralen . 2A  . . . .
5-Methylchrysene 3697-24-3 . A . . .
4,4-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) 

(MOCA) 

101-14-4 2A A . . A2
4,4-Methylenebis(n,n-dimethyl) 

benzenamine 

69522-43-6 . A P . .
4,4-Methylene bis(2-methylaniline) . 2B . . . .
Methylene Chloride 75-09-2 . . P . A2
4,4-Methylene Dianiline 101-77-9 2B A X . A2
N-Methyl-N-nitrosoguanidine(MNNG) . 2A . . . .
N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea . 2A . . . .
Methyl Bromide 74-83-9 . . P . .
Methyl Chloride 74-87-3 . . P . .
Methyl Hydrazine 60-34-4 . . P . A2
Methyl Iodide 74-88-4 . . P . A2
Methyl Methanesulphonate 66-27-3 2B A . . .
2-Methyl-nitroanthraquinone 

(uncertain purity) 

. 2B . . . .
N-Methyl-N-nitrosourethane . 2B . . . .
N-Methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitro- 

guanidine 

70-25-7  . A . . .
Methylthiouracil . 2B . . . .
Metronidazole 443-48-1 2B A . . .
Michler's Ketone 90-94-8 . A . . .
Mineral Oils (untreated & mildly-treated)  . 1 . . . .
Mirex 2385-85-5 2B A . . .
Mitomycin C 50-07-7 2B . . . .
Monochloroethane . . . P . .
Monocrotaline . 2B . . . .
MOPP(combined therapy- 

with nitrogen mustard, vicristine, 

procarbazine and prednisone) 

. 1 . . . .
5-(Morpholinomethyl)-3- 

[(5-nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-2-oxazolidinone 

. 2B . . . .
Mustard Gas (Sulphur mustard) 505-60-2 1 K . . .
Nafenopin . 2B . . . .
2-Naphthylamine . 1 K . . .
alpha-Naphthylamine 134-32-7 . . X X .
beta-Naphthylamine 91-59-8 . . X X A1
Nickel Carbonyl 13463-39-3 . . X . .
Nickel and Nickel Compounds 7440-02-0 1 A X . .
Nickel, Inorganic Compounds . . . X . .
Nickel Refining . . . . . .
Nickel Sulfide Roasting, 

Fume and Dust 

. . . X . A1 
Niridazole . 2B . . . .
Nitrilotriacetic Acid 139-13-9 . A . . .
5-Nitroacenaphthene . 2B . . . .
5-Nitro-o-anisidine 99-59-2  . . . . .
4-Nitrodiphenyl 92-93-3 . . P X A1
p-Nitrochlorobenzene 100-00-5 . . P . .
Nitrofen  1836-75-5 2B A . . .
1-[(5-Nitrofurfurylidene)amino] 

-2-imidazolidinone 

. 2B  . . . .
N-[4-(5-Nitro-2-furyl)- 

2-thiazolyl]acetamide 

. 2B . . . .
Nitrogen Mustard 55-86-7 2A A . . .
Nitrogen Mustard N-oxide . 2B . . . .
2-Nitronaphthalene 581-89-5 . . X . .
2-Nitropropane 79-46-9 2B A P . A2
N-Nitrosodi-n-butylamine 924-16-3 2B A . . .
N-Nitrosodiethanolamine 1116-54-7 2B . . .
N-Nitrosodiethylamine 55-18-5 2A A . . .
N-Nitrosodimethylamine 62-75-9 2A A P X A2
P-Nitrosodiphenylamine 156-10-5 . . . . .
N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine 621-64-7 2B A . . .
3-(N-Nitrosomethylamino) 

propionitrile 

. 2B  . . . .
CHEMICAL NAME/PROCESS CAS NO IARC1 NTP2 NIOSH3 OSHA4 ACGIH5
4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)- 

1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone(NNK)

. 2B A . . .
N-Nitroso-n-ethylurea 759-73-9 . A . . .
N-Nitroso-n-methylurea 684-93-5 . . . .
N-Nitrosomethylethylamine . 2B . . . .
N-Nitrosomethylvinylamine 4549-40-0 2B A . . .
N-Nitrosomorpholine 59-89-2 2B A . . .
N-Nitrosonornicotine 16543-55-8 2B . . .
N-Nitrosopiperidine 100-75-4 2B . . .
N-Nitrosopyrrolidine 930-55-2 2B A . . .
N-Nitrososarcosine 13256-22-9 2B . . .
Norethisterone 68-22-4  . A . . .
Ochratoxin A . . A . . .
Oestradiol-17B 50-28-2  . . . . .
Oestrogen replacement compounds . 1 . . . .
Oestrogens, nonsteroidal . 1 . . . .
Oestrogens,steroidal . 1 . . . .
Oestrone 53-16-7 . . . . .
Oil Orange SS . 2B . . . .
4,4-Oxydianiline . A . . . .
Oxymetholone 434-07-1 . . . . .
Panfuran S 

(containing dihydroxymethylfuratrizine) 

. 2B . . . .
Perchloroethylene 127-18-4 . . . . A3 
Pesticide Manufacture 

and Formulation 

. . . . . .
Phenacetine 62-44-2 2A A . . .
Phenazopyridine 94-78-0 . . . . .
.Phenazopyridine Hydrochloride 136-40-3 2B A . . .
Phenobarbital . 2B . . . .
Phenoxyacetic Acid Herbicides 

(Occupational Exposure to) 

. . . . . .
Phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride . 2B . . . .
N-Phenyl-beta-naphthylamine 135-88-6 . . X . A2
O-Phenylenediamine 95-54-5 . . . . A2
Phenylhydrazine 100-63-0 . . P . A2
Phenytoin 57-41-0 2B A . . .
Phenytoin, Sodium Salt 630-93-3 . . . . .
Polybrominated Biphenyls(PBBs) 36355-01-8 2B A . . .
Polychlorinated Biphenyls(PCBs) 1336-36-3 2A A P . .
Ponceau MX . 2B . . . .
Ponceau 3R . 2B . . . .
Potassium bromate . 2B . . . .
Procarbazine 671-16-9  . . . . .
Procarbazine Hydrochloride 366-70-1 2A A . . .
Progesterone 57-83-0 . A . . .
Progestins . 2B . . . .
Propane Sultone 1120-71-4 . . . . A2 
CHEMICAL NAME/PROCESS CAS NO IARC1 NTP2 NIOSH3 OSHA4 ACGIH5
1,3-Propane sultone . 2B . . .
beta-Propiolactone 57-57-8 2B A P X A2
Propylene Dichloride (1,2-dichloropropane) 78-87-5 . . P . .
Propyleneimine 75-55-8 . . P . A2
Propylene oxide 75-56-9 2A A P . .
Propylthiouracil 51-52-5 2B A . . .
Reserpine 50-55-5 . A . . .
Rubber Industry(Certain Occupations) . 1 . . . .
Saccharin 81-07-2 2B A . . .
Safrole 94-59-7 2B A . . .
Selenium Sulfide 7446-34-6 . A . . .
Sequential Oral Contraceptives . 1 . . . .
Shale-Oils . 1 . . . .
Silica, crystalline 14464-46-1 2A A . . .
Quartz  . . A . . .
Cristobalite . . A . . .
Tridymite . . A . . .
Sodium ortho-phenylphenate . 2B . . . .
Soots, Tars, and Mineral Oils . 1 A . . .
Sterigmatocystin . 2B . . . .
Steptozotocin 18883-66-4 2B A . . .
Styrene . 2B . . . .
Styrene oxide . 2A . . . .
Sulfallate 95-06-7 2B A . . .
Talc Containing- 

(asbestiform fibers) 

. 1 . . . .
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P 

dioxin (TCDD) 

1746-01-6 2B A P . .
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 79-34-5 . . P . .
Tetrachloroethylene 127-18-4 2B A P . .
Tetranitromethane 509-14-8 . . . . A2
Thioacetamide 62-55-5 2B A . . .
4,4-Thiodianiline . 2B . . . .
Thiourea  62-56-6 2B A . . .
Thorium Dioxide 1314-20-1 . K . . .
Titanium Dioxide 13463-67-7 . . P . .
Tobacco products, smokeless . 1 . . . .
Tobacco smoke . 1 . . . .
O-Tlidine-based dyes . . . X . .
O-Tolidine 119-93-7 . . P . A2
Toluene diisocyanate 26471-62-5 2B A P . .
Toluenediamine (TDA) 95-80-7 . . P . .
O-Toluidine 95-53-4  2B . P . A2
O-Toluidine Hydrochloride 636-21-5  . . . . .
P-Toluidine 106-49-0 . . P . A2
Toxaphene (Polychlorinated camphenes) 8001-35-2 2B A P . .
Treethylenemelamine 51-18-3 . . . . .
Trenimone 68-76-8 . . . . .
Treosulphan 299-75-2 1 . . . .
Trichloroethylene 79-01-6 . . P . .
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 79-00-5 . . P . .
2,4,6-Trichlorophenol 88-06-2 . A . . .
1,2,3-Trichloropropane 96-18-4 . . P . .
Tris(aziridinyl)-Para-benzoquinone 

(Triaziquone) 

68-76-8 . . . . .
Tris(1-aziridinyl)phosphine 

Sulphide (Thiotepa) 

52-24-4 . A . . A2
Tris(2,3,-dibromopropyl)phosphate 126-72-7 2A A . . .
Tryptophan P1 62450-06-0 . . . . .
Tryptophan P2 62450-07-1  . . . . .
Trp-P-1 (3-Amino-1, 

4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole)

. 2B . . . .
Trp-P-2 (3-Amino-1-methyl 

-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole) 

. 2B  . . . .
Trypan bule . 2B . . . .
Uracil Mustard 66-75-1 2B . . . .
Uranium 7440-61-1 . . P . .
Urethane 51-79-6 2B A . . .
Vinyl Acetate 108-05-4 . . . . A3
Vinyl Bromide 593-60-2 2A . P . A2
Vinyl Chloride 75-01-4 1 K X X A1
4-Vinyl Cyclohexene 100-40-3 . . . . A2
Vinyl Cyclohexene Dioxide 106-87-6 . . P . A2
Vinyl Fluoride 75-02-5  . . . . .
Vinylidene Chloride 

(1,1-dichloroethylene)

75-35-4 . . P . .
Vinylidene Fluoride Monomer 75-38-7 . . . . .
Xylidine (mixed isomers) 1300-73-8 . . . . A2
Welding, fumes 

and total particulates

. . P . . .
Zinc chromates 13530-65-9 . . P . A1
NOTES

1. Compiled from International Agency for Research on Cancer, IARC Monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans, chemicals, industrial processes and industries associated with cancer in humans.

GROUP 1. The chemical, group of chemicals, industrial process or occupational exposure is carcinogenic to humans.

GROUP 2A. The chemical, group of chemicals, industrial process or occupational exposure is probably carcinogenic to humans.

GROUP 2B. The chemical, group of chemicals, industrial process or occupational exposure is possibly carcinogenic to humans.

2. Compiled from U.S. Department of health and Human Services, National Toxicology Program.

K. Substances or groups of substances, and technological or manufacturing processes that are known to be carcinogenic.

A. Substances or groups of substances that may reasonably be anticipated to be carcinogens.

3. Compiled from the NIOSH recommendations for Occupational Safety and Health standards.

P. Substances or groups of substances that have potential for carcinogenicity.

X. Those chemicals or chemical classes currently regulated by OSHA as carcinogens.

4. Compiled from Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1910.1000 et. seq. 1984. Entries in this column are defined below.

X. Those chemical or chemicals classes currently regulated by OSHA as carcinogens.

5. Compiled from American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).

A1. Confirmed Human Carcinogen: The agent is carcinogenic to humans based on the weight of evidence from epidemiological studies of, or convincing clinical evidence in, exposed humans.

A2. Suspected Human Carcinogen: The agent is carcinogenic in experimental animals at dose levels, by route of administration, at site, of histologic type, or by mechanism that are considered relevant to worker exposure. Available epidemiological studies are conflicting or insufficient to confirm an increased risk of cancer in exposed humans.

A3. Animal Carcinogen: The agent is carcinogenic in experimental animals at a relatively high dose, by route of administration, at site, of histologic type or by mechanism that are not relevant to worker exposure. Available epidemiological studies do not confirm an increased risk of cancer in exposed humans.



Download

about Carcinogen Safety, please contact Larry Mendoza.

: 828-7899


OEHS Home Page CBSS Home Page VCU Home Page
Last update : 8/8/00