Peer-Reviewed Papers

1. Pawelek, J., Sansone, M., Koch, N., Christie, G., Halaban, R., Hendee, J., Lerner, A. and Varga, J. Melanoma cells resistant to inhibition of growth by melanocyte stimulating hormone.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 72:951-955, 1975.

2. Pawelek, J., Halaban, R. and Christie, G.  Melanoma cells which require cyclic AMP for growth.  Nature, 258:539-540, 1975.

3. Holmes, M. A., Remington, S. J., Schwendimann, B., Christie, G.E. and Matthews, B. W. Crystallographic data for sturgeon holo D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase:  A holo-GPDH with crystallographic twofold symmetry.  J. Mol. Biol., 112:651-652, 1977.

4. Christie, G. E. and Platt, T.  A secondary attachment site for bacteriophage lambda in trpC of E. coli.  Cell 16:407-414, 1979.

5. Christie, G. E. and Platt, T.  Gene structure in the tryptophan operon of Escherichia coli:  Nucleotide sequence of trpC and the flanking intercistronic regions.  J. Mol. Biol. 142:519-530, 1980.

6. Christie, G. E. and Platt, T. A functional hybrid ribosome binding site in tryptophan operon mRNA of Escherichia coli.  J. Mol. Biol. 143:335-341, 1980.

7. Wu, A. M., Christie, G. E. and Platt, T. Tandem termination sites in the tryptophan operon of Escherichia coli.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78:2913- 2917, 1981.

8. Christie, G. E., Farnham, P. J. and Platt, T.  Synthetic sites for transcription termination and a functional comparison with tryptophan operon termination sites in vitro.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78:4180-4184, 1981.

9. Yanofsky, C., Platt, T., Crawford, I. P., Nichols, B. P., Christie, G. E., Horowitz, H., Van Cleemput, M. and Wu, A. M.  The complete nucleotide sequence of the tryptophan operon of E. coli.  Nucl. Acids Res. 9:6647-6688, 1981.

10. Horowitz, H., Christie, G. E. and Platt, T.  The nucleotide sequence of the trpD gene, encoding anthranilate synthetase component II of Escherichia coli.  J. Mol. Biol. 156:245-256, 1982.

11. Christie, G. E. and Calendar, R.  Bacteriophage P2 late promoters:  Transcription initiation sites for two late mRNAs.  J. Mol. Biol. 167:773-790, 1983.

12. Christie, G. E. and Calendar, R.:  Bacteriophage P2 late promoters II: Comparison of the four late promoter sequences.  J. Mol. Biol. 181: 373-382, 1985.

13. Grossman, A. D., Zhou, Y.-N., Gross, C., Heilig, J., Christie, G. E. and Calendar, R.  Mutations in the rpoH (htpR) Gene of Escherichia coli K-12 phenotypically suppress a temperature-sensitive mutant defective in the 70 subunit of RNA polymerase.  J. Bacteriol. 161: 939-943, 1985.

14. Christie, G. E., Haggard-Ljungquist, E., Feiwell, R. and Calendar, R.  Regulation of bacteriophage P2 late gene expression:  The ogr gene.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 83: 3238-3242, 1986.

15. Dale, E. C., Christie, G. E. and Calendar, R.  Organization and expression of the satellite bacteriophage P4 late gene cluster.  J. Mol. Biol., 192: 793-803, 1986.

16. Birkeland, N.K., Christie, G.E. and Lindqvist, B.H. Directed mutagenesis of the bacteriophage P2 ogr gene defines an essential function.  Gene 73: 327-335, 1988.

17. Lee, T.C. and Christie, G.E. Purification and properties of the bacteriophage P2 ogr gene product: a prokaryotic zinc-binding transcriptional activator.  J. Biol. Chem. 265:7472-7477, 1990.

18. Halling, C., Calendar, R., Christie, G.E., Dale, E.C., Deho, G., Finkel, S., Flensburg, J., Ghisotti, D., Kahn, M.L., Lane, K.B., Lin, C.-S., Lindqvist, B.H., Pierson, L.S. III., Six, E.W., Sunshine, M.G., Zierman, R.  1990.  DNA sequence of satellite bacteriophage P4.  Nucl. Acids Res. 18:1649, 1990

19. Temple, L., Cuskey, S.M., Perkins, R.E., Bass, R.C., Morales, N.M., Christie, G.E., Olsen, R.H. and Phibbs, P.V. Jr. Analysis of cloned structural and regulatory genes for carbohydrate utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO.  J. Bacteriol. 172:6396-6402, 1990.

20. Grambow, N.J., Birkeland, N.K., Anders, D.L. and Christie, G.E. Deletion analysis of a bacteriophage P2 late promoter.  Gene 95:9-15, 1990.

21. Christie, G.E. and Calendar, R.: Interactions between satellite bacteriophage P4 and its helpers.  Annu. Rev. Genet. 24:465-490, 1990.

22. Temple, L.M., Forsburg, S.L., Calendar, R. and Christie, G.E. Nucleotide sequence of the genes encoding the major tail sheath and tail tube proteins of bacteriophage P2.  Virology 181:353-358, 1991.

23. Birkeland, N.K., Lindqvist, B.H. and Christie, G.E. Control of bacteriophage P2 gene expression: An analysis of the transcription of the ogr gene.  J. Bacteriol. 173:6927-6934, 1991.

24. Linderoth, N.A., Ziermann, R., Haggard-Ljungquist, E., Christie, G.E. and Calendar, R. Nucleotide sequence of the DNA packaging and capsid synthesis genes of bacteriophage P2.  Nucleic Acids Res. 19:7207-7214, 1991.

25. King, R.A., Anders, D.L. and Christie, G.E.  Site-directed mutagenesis of an amino acid residue in the bacteriophage P2 Ogr protein implicated in interaction with Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. Molec. Microbiol. 6:3313-3320, 1992.

26. Gebhardt, K., King, R.A., Christie, G.E. and Lindqvist, B.H. Mutational analysis of the bacteriophage P2 Ogr protein: truncation of the carboxy-terminus.  J. Bacteriol. 175:7724-7726, 1993.

27. Linderoth, N.A., Julien, B., Flick, K.E., Calendar, R., and Christie, G.E.   Molecular cloning and characterization of bacteriophage P2 tail genes R and S involved in tail completion.  Virology 200:347-359, 1994.

28. Christie, G.E., White, T.J. and Goodwin, T.S. A merR homologue at 74 minutes on the Escherichia coli chromosome.  Gene 146:131-132, 1994.

29. Temple, L., Sage, A., Christie, G.E. and Phibbs, P.V. Jr. Two genes for carbohydrate catabolism are divergently transcribed from a region of DNA containing the hexC locus in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.  J. Bacteriol.176:4700-4709, 1994.

30. Ziermann, R., Bartlett, B.A., Calendar, R. and Christie, G.E. Functions involved in bacteriophage P2-induced host cell lysis and identification of a new tail gene.  J. Bacteriol. 176:4974-4984, 1994.

31. Ayers, D.J., Sunshine, M.G., Six, E.W. and Christie, G.E.  Mutations affecting two adjacent amino acid residues in the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase block transcriptional activation by the bacteriophage P2 Ogr protein.  J. Bacteriol. 176:7430-7438, 1994.

32. Christie, G.E. and Cale, S.B. The sigma-70 subunit from Escherichia coli C differs from that of E. coli K-12.  Gene 162:161-162, 1995.

33. Jin, S., Chen, Y.-C., Christie, G.E. and Benedik, M.J.   Regulation of the Serratia marcescens extracellular nuclease: Positive control by a homolog of P2 Ogr encoded by a cryptic prophage.  J. Mol. Biol. 256:264-278, 1996.

34. Christie, G.E., Cale, S.B., Isaksson, L.A., Jin, D.J., Xu, M., Sauer, B. and Calendar, R.  Escherichia coli rpoC397 encodes a temperature-sensitive C-terminal frameshift in the b ’ subunit of RNA polymerase that blocks growth of bacteriophage P2.  J. Bacteriol. 178:6991-6993, 1996.

35. Wood, L.F., Tszine, N.Y., and Christie, G.E.  Activation of P2 late transcription by P2 Ogr protein requires a discrete contact site on the C-terminus of the  subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase.   J. Mol. Biol. 274:1-7, 1997

36. Winslow, R.H., Julien, B., Calendar, R. and Christie, G.E. An upstream sequence element required for NucC-dependent expression of the Serratia marcescens extracellular nuclease.  J. Bacteriol.180:6064-6067, 1998. 

37. Julien, B., Pountney, D., Christie, G.E. and Calendar, R. Mutational analysis of a satellite phage activator.  Gene 223:129-134, 1998.

38. Doty, J.M., Oda, J., Ivatury, R.R., Blocher, C.R., Christie, G.E., Yelon, J.A., and Sugerman, H.J. The effects of hemodynamic shock and increased intra-abdominal pressure on bacterial translocation. J Trauma. 52:13-7. 2002.

39. Christie, G.E., Temple, L.M., Bartlett, B.A. and Goodwin, T.S. A Programmed Translational Frameshift in the Bacteriophage P2 FETUD Tail Gene Operon. J. Bacteriol. 184:6522-6531, 2002.

40. McAlister, V., Zou, C., Winslow, R.H. and Christie, G.E. Purification and in vitro Characterization of the Serratia marcescens NucC Protein, a Zinc-Binding Transcription Factor Homologous to P2 Ogr.  J. Bacteriol. 185:1808-1816, 2003.

41. Christie, G.E., Anders, D.L., McAlister, V., Goodwin, T.S., Julien, B, and Calendar, R.  Identification of upstream sequences essential for activation of a bacteriophage P2 late promoter.   J. Bacteriol.185:4609-4614, 2003.

42. Markov. D., Christie, G. E., Sauer, B., Calendar, R., Park,T., Young, R. and Severinov, K.  P2 growth restriction on an rpoC mutant is suppressed by alleles of the Rz1 homolog lysC.  J. Bacteriol.186:4628-37, 2004.

43. Tallent, S.M., Langston, T.B., Moran, R.G., Christie, G.E. Transducing particles of Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island SaPI1 are comprised of helper phage-encoded proteins. J Bacteriol. 189:7520-7524, 2007.

44.  Poliakov, A., Chang, J.R., Spilman, M.S., Damle, P.K., Christie, G.E., Mobley, J.A., Dokland, T. Capsid size determination by Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island SaPI1 involves specific incorporation of SaPI1 proteins into procapsids.  J Mol Biol. 380:465-475, 2008.

45. Ubeda, C., Olivarez, N.P., Barry, P., Wang, H.,  Kong, X., Matthews, A, Tallent, S.M., Christie, G.E., Novick, R.P. Specificity of staphylococcal phage and SaPI DNA packaging as revealed by integrase, terminase and pif mutations.  Molec Microbiol. 72:98-108, 2009.

46. McAlister VJ, Christie GE. Analysis of DNA binding by a eubacterial zinc-finger transcription factor. J Bacteriol. 191:4513-4521, 2009

47. Tormo-Más MÁ , Mir I, Shrestha A, Tallent SM, Campoy S, Lasa Í,  Barbé J, Novick RP, Christie GE, Penadés JR.  Moonlighting phage proteins de-repress staphylococcal pathogenicity islands.  Nature 465:779-782, 2010.

48. Novick RP, Christie GE, Penadés JR.
The phage-related chromosomal islands of Gram-positive bacteria.
Nat Rev Microbiol. 8:541-551, 2010. Review.  PMID:20634809

49.  Christie GE, Matthews AM, King DG, Lane KD, Olivarez NP, Tallent SM, Gill SR, Novick RP. The complete genomes of Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophages 80 and 80α -implications for the specificity of SaPI mobilization. Virology. 407:381-390, 2010. PMID:20869739

50.  Novick RP, Christie GE, Penadés JR. (2010) The phage-related chromosomal islands of Gram-positive bacteria.  Nat Rev Microbiol. 8:541-551. PMID: 20634809

51.  Spilman MS, Dearborn AD, Chang JR, Damle PK, Christie GE, Dokland T.
A conformational switch involved in maturation of Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage 80α capsids.  J Mol Biol. 405:863-876, 2010. PMID:21129380

52. Ferrer MD, Quiles-Puchalt N, Harwich MD, Tormo-Más MA, Campoy S, Barbé J, Lasa I, Novick RP, Christie GE, Penadés JR. 
RinA controls phage-mediated packaging and transfer of virulence genes in Gram-positive bacteria.  Nucleic Acids Res. 39:5866-5878, 2011. PMID:21450808

53.  Dearborn AD, Spilman MS, Damle PK, Chang JR, Monroe EB, Saad JS, Christie GE, Dokland T. (2011)  The Staphylococcus aureus Pathogenicity Island 1 Protein gp6 Functions as an Internal Scaffold during Capsid Size Determination. J Mol Biol. 412:710-722, 2011. PMID:21821042

54.  Damle PK, Wall EA, Spilman MS, Dearborn AD, Ram G, Novick RP, Dokland T, Christie GE. The roles of SaPI1 proteins gp7 (CpmA) and gp6 (CpmB) in capsid size determination and helper phage interference. Virology 432:277-282, 2012.  PMID: 22709958

55.  Spilman MS, Damle PK, Dearborn AD, Rodenberg CM, Chang JR, Wall EA, Christie GE, Dokland T. Assembly of bacteriophage 80α capsids in a Staphylococcus aureus expression system.  Virology, in press, 2012.  PMID: 22980502

56.  Ram G, Chen J, Kumar K, Ross HF, Úbeda C, Damle PK, Lane KD, Penades JR, Christie GE, Novick RP.  SaPI interference with helper phage reproduction is a paradigm of molecular parasitism.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:16300-16305, 2012. PMID:22991467

57. Christie GE, Dokland T. Pirates of the Caudovirales. Virology 434:210-221, 2012. PMID: 23131350

58. Quiles-Puchalt N, Tormo-Más MÁ, Campoy S, Toledo-Arana A, Monedero V, Lasa I, Novick RP, Christie GE, Penadés JR. A super-family of transcriptional activators regulates bacteriophage packaging and lysis in Gram-positive bacteria. Nucleic Acids Res. 15:7260-7275, 2013. PMID: 23771138

59. Lorenz L, Lins B, Barrett J, Montgomery A, Trapani S, Schindler A, Christie GE, Cresawn SG, Temple L. Genomic characterization of six novel Bacillus pumilusbacteriophages.
Virology 444:374-383, 2013. PMID: 23906709

60. Bento JC, Lane KD, Read EK, Cerca N, Christie, GE. Sequence Determinants for DNA Packaging Specificity in the S. aureus pathogenicity island SaPI1. Plasmid 71:8-15, 2014. PMID: 24365721

61. Wall EA, Caufield JH, Lyons CE, Manning KA, Dokland T, Christie GE. Specific N-terminal cleavage of ribosomal protein L27 in Staphylococcus aureus and related bacteria. Mol Microbiol. 95:258-269, 2015. PMID: 25388641


Christie, G. E. and Calendar, R.:  Transactivation of P2 phage late genes by satellite phage P4.  In: Microbiology, D. Schlessinger, Ed. (American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.), 108-110, 1984.

Calendar, R., Christie, G., Dale, E. and Halling, C.:  Reciprocal transactivation by P2 and P4 phages. In:  Sequence Specificity in Transcription and Translation, UCLA Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology, New Series, Vol. 30, R. Calendar and L. Gold, eds., (Alan R. Liss, Inc., NY), 1985.

Calendar, R., Kahn, M., Six, E., Goldstein, R., Lindqvist, B., Deho, G., Inman, R., Jiang, R.-Z., Lin, C.-S., Lee, S. J., Lagos, R., Christie, G., Dale, E. and Pierson, L. S.:  Bacteriophage P4. In:  Genetic Maps, S. J. O'Brien, Ed. (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, NY), 62-65, l984.

Linderoth, N.A., Christie, G.E. and Haggård-Ljungquist, E.:  Bacteriophage P2: physical, genetic, and restriction map.  In:  Genetic Maps, 6th Edition, S. J. O'Brien, Ed., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, pp. 1.62-1.69, l993.

Calendar, R., Yu, S., Myung, H., Barreiro, V., Odegrip, R., Carlson, K., Davenport, L., Mosig, G., Christie, G.E., and Haggard-Ljungquist, E.  The lysogenic conversion genes of coliphage P2 have unusually high AT content.  In: Horizontal Gene Transfer, M. Syvanen & C. Kado, Eds.,  Chapman and Hall,  London, pp. 241-252, 1998.

Christie, G.E.:   Propagation of Viruses:Bacteria.  In: Encyclopedia of Virology, Second Edition. R.G. Webster and A. Granoff, Eds., Academic Press Ltd., London, 1999, pp. 1413-1418.

Christie, G.E. and Calendar, R.   P2-like Viruses.  In: The Springer Index of Viruses. C. A. Tidona and G. Darai, Eds. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2001.

Christie, G.E. and Calendar, R.   P4-like Viruses.  In: The Springer Index of Viruses. C. A. Tidona and G. Darai, Eds. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2001.

Christie, G.E. and Calendar, R.   P2-like Viruses.  In: The Springer Index of Viruses. C. A. Tidona and G. Darai, Eds. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2009.

Christie, G.E. and Calendar, R.   P4-like Viruses.  In: The Springer Index of Viruses. C. A. Tidona and G. Darai, Eds. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2009.

Łoś, M.,  Kuzio, J.,  McConnell, M.R., Kropinski, A.M,. Węgrzyn, G., Christie, G.E.  Lysogenic conversion in bacteria of importance to the food industry. In: Bacteriophage in the Control of Food- and Waterborne Pathogens, P. M. Sabour, and M. W. Griffiths, Eds., ASM Press, Washington, D.C., June  2010. pp. 157-198  ISBN 978-1-55581-502-8

Christie GE, Allison HA, Kuzio J, McShan M, Waldor MK, Kropinski AM. Prophage-induced Changes in Cellular Cytochemistry and Virulence. Chapter 4 in: Bacteriophages in Health and Disease, S. Abedon and P. Hyman, eds. CABI Press, Oxfordshire, UK, Sept 2012.  ISBN 978-1-84593-984-7


AF063097                33593 bp          11-DEC-2002
Bacteriophage P2, complete genome.
Christie,G.E., Haggard-Ljungquist,E. and Calendar,R.

AY135739               32684 bp          08-SEP-2003
Bacteriophage WPhi, complete genome.
Esposito,D., Schmidt,B.J., Bloom,F.R. and Christie,G.E.

X51522                 11624 bp                   14-NOV-2006
Bacteriophage P4 complete DNA genome
Halling,C., Calendar,R., Christie,G.E., Dale,E.C., Deho,G., Finkel,S., Flensburg,J., Ghisotti,D., Kahn,M.L., Lane,K.B., Lin,C.S., Lindqvist,B.H., Pierson,L.S., Six,E.W., Sunshine,M.G. and  Ziermann,R.

AY135486               30636 bp      16-MAY-2007
Enterobacteria phage PSP3, complete genome.
Christie,G.E., Xu,P. and Buck,G.A.

DQ517338               43864 bp      03-OCT-2007
Staphylococcus phage 80alpha, complete sequence.
Matthews,A.M., Christie,G.E., King,D.R., Gill,S.R. and Novick,R.P.

DQ908929               42140 bp     15-OCT-2007
Staphylococcus phage 80, complete genome.
Christie,G.E., King,D., Olivarez,N. and Tallent,S.M.

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